Chapter 10. VFS Modules

Alexander Bokovoy

Stefan Metzmacher

27 May 2003

Table of Contents

The Samba (Posix) VFS layer
The general interface
Possible VFS operation layers
The Interaction between the Samba VFS subsystem and the modules
Initialization and registration
How the Modules handle per connection data
Upgrading to the New VFS Interface
Upgrading from 2.2.* and 3.0alpha modules
Some Notes
Implement TRANSPARENT functions
Implement OPAQUE functions

The Samba (Posix) VFS layer

While most of Samba deployments are done using POSIX-compatible operating systems, there is clearly more to a file system than what is required by POSIX when it comes to adopting semantics of NT file system. Since Samba 2.2 all file-system related operations go through an abstraction layer for virtual file system (VFS) that is modelled after both POSIX and additional functions needed to transform NTFS semantics.

This abstraction layer now provides more features than a regular POSIX file system could fill in. It is not required that all of them should be implemented by your particular file system. However, when those features are available, Samba would advertize them to a CIFS client and they might be used by an application and in case of Windows client that might mean a client expects even more additional functionality when it encounters those features. There is a practical reason to allow handling of this snowfall without modifying the Samba core and it is fulfilled by providing an infrastructure to dynamically load VFS modules at run time.

Each VFS module could implement a number of VFS operations. The way it does it is irrelevant, only two things actually matter: whether specific implementation wants to cooperate with other modules' implementations or not, and whether module needs to store additional information that is specific to a context it is operating in. Multiple VFS modules could be loaded at the same time and it is even possible to load several instances of the same VFS module with different parameters.

The general interface

A VFS module has three major components:

  • An initialization function that is called during the module load to register implemented operations.

  • An operations table representing a mapping between statically defined module functions and VFS layer operations.

  • Module functions that do actual work.

While this structure has been first applied to the VFS subsystem, it is now commonly used across all Samba 3 subsystems that support loadable modules. In fact, one module could provide a number of interfaces to different subsystems by exposing different operation tables through separate initialization functions.

An initialization function is used to register module with Samba run-time. As Samba internal structures and API are changed over lifetime, each released version has a VFS interface version that is increased as VFS development progresses or any of underlying Samba structures are changed in binary-incompatible way. When VFS module is compiled in, VFS interface version of that Samba environment is embedded into the module's binary object and is checked by the Samba core upon module load. If VFS interface number reported by the module isn't the same Samba core knows about, version conflict is detected and module dropped to avoid any potential memory corruption when accessing (changed) Samba structures.

Therefore, initialization function passes three parameters to the VFS registration function, smb_register_vfs()

  • interface version number, as constant SMB_VFS_INTERFACE_VERSION,

  • module name, under which Samba core will know it, and

  • an operations' table.

The operations' table defines which functions in the module would correspond to specific VFS operations and how those functions would co-operate with the rest of VFS subsystem. Each operation could perform in a following ways:

  • transparent, meaning that while operation is overridden, the module will still call a previous implementation, before or after its own action. This mode is indicated by the constant SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT;

  • opaque, for the implementations that are terminating sequence of actions. For example, it is used to implement POSIX operation on top of non-POSIX file system or even not a file system at all, like a database for a personal audio collection. Use constant SMB_VFS_LAYER_OPAQUE for this mode;

  • splitter, a way when some file system activity is done in addition to the transparently calling previous implementation. This usually involves mangling the result of that call before returning it back to the caller. This mode is selected by SMB_VFS_LAYER_SPLITTER constant;

  • logger does not change anything or performs any additional VFS operations. When logger module acts, information about operations is logged somewhere using an external facility (or Samba's own debugging tools) but not the VFS layer. In order to describe this type of activity use constant SMB_VFS_LAYER_LOGGER;

  • On contrary, scanner module does call other VFS operations while processing the data that goes through the system. This type of operation is indicated by the SMB_VFS_LAYER_SCANNER constant.

Fundamentally, there are three types: transparent, opaque, and logger. Splitter and scanner may confuse developers (and indeed they are confused as our experience has shown) but this separation is to better expose the nature of a module's actions. Most of modules developed so far are either one of those three fundamental types with transparent and opaque being prevalent.

Each VFS operation has a vfs_op_type, a function pointer and a handle pointer in the struct vfs_ops and tree macros to make it easier to call the operations. (Take a look at include/vfs.h and include/vfs_macros.h.)

typedef enum _vfs_op_type {
	SMB_VFS_OP_NOOP = -1,

	...

	/* File operations */

	SMB_VFS_OP_OPEN,
	SMB_VFS_OP_CLOSE,
	SMB_VFS_OP_READ,
	SMB_VFS_OP_WRITE,
	SMB_VFS_OP_LSEEK,
	SMB_VFS_OP_SENDFILE,

	...

	SMB_VFS_OP_LAST
} vfs_op_type;

This struct contains the function and handle pointers for all operations.

struct vfs_ops {
	struct vfs_fn_pointers {
		...

		/* File operations */

		int (*open)(struct vfs_handle_struct *handle,
			struct connection_struct *conn,
			const char *fname, int flags, mode_t mode);
		int (*close)(struct vfs_handle_struct *handle,
			struct files_struct *fsp, int fd);
		ssize_t (*read)(struct vfs_handle_struct *handle,
			struct files_struct *fsp, int fd, void *data, size_t n);
		ssize_t (*write)(struct vfs_handle_struct *handle,
			struct files_struct *fsp, int fd,
			const void *data, size_t n);
		SMB_OFF_T (*lseek)(struct vfs_handle_struct *handle,
			struct files_struct *fsp, int fd,
			SMB_OFF_T offset, int whence);
		ssize_t (*sendfile)(struct vfs_handle_struct *handle,
			int tofd, files_struct *fsp, int fromfd,
			const DATA_BLOB *header, SMB_OFF_T offset, size_t count);

		...
	} ops;

	struct vfs_handles_pointers {
		...

		/* File operations */

		struct vfs_handle_struct *open;
		struct vfs_handle_struct *close;
		struct vfs_handle_struct *read;
		struct vfs_handle_struct *write;
		struct vfs_handle_struct *lseek;
		struct vfs_handle_struct *sendfile;

		...
	} handles;
};

This macros SHOULD be used to call any vfs operation. DO NOT ACCESS conn->vfs.ops.* directly !!!

...

/* File operations */
#define SMB_VFS_OPEN(conn, fname, flags, mode) \
	((conn)->vfs.ops.open((conn)->vfs.handles.open,\
	 (conn), (fname), (flags), (mode)))
#define SMB_VFS_CLOSE(fsp, fd) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs.ops.close(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs.handles.close, (fsp), (fd)))
#define SMB_VFS_PREAD(fsp, fd, data, n, off) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs.ops.read(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs.handles.read,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (data), (n), (off)))
#define SMB_VFS_PWRITE(fsp, fd, data, n, off) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs.ops.write(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs.handles.write,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (data), (n), (off)))
#define SMB_VFS_LSEEK(fsp, fd, offset, whence) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs.ops.lseek(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs.handles.lseek,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (offset), (whence)))
#define SMB_VFS_SENDFILE(tofd, fsp, fromfd, header, offset, count) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs.ops.sendfile(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs.handles.sendfile,\
	 (tofd), (fsp), (fromfd), (header), (offset), (count)))

...

Possible VFS operation layers

These values are used by the VFS subsystem when building the conn->vfs and conn->vfs_opaque structs for a connection with multiple VFS modules. Internally, Samba differentiates only opaque and transparent layers at this process. Other types are used for providing better diagnosing facilities.

Most modules will provide transparent layers. Opaque layer is for modules which implement actual file system calls (like DB-based VFS). For example, default POSIX VFS which is built in into Samba is an opaque VFS module.

Other layer types (logger, splitter, scanner) were designed to provide different degree of transparency and for diagnosing VFS module behaviour.

Each module can implement several layers at the same time provided that only one layer is used per each operation.

typedef enum _vfs_op_layer {
	SMB_VFS_LAYER_NOOP = -1,	/* - For using in VFS module to indicate end of array */
					/*   of operations description */
	SMB_VFS_LAYER_OPAQUE = 0,	/* - Final level, does not call anything beyond itself */
	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT,	/* - Normal operation, calls underlying layer after */
					/*   possibly changing passed data */
	SMB_VFS_LAYER_LOGGER,		/* - Logs data, calls underlying layer, logging may not */
					/*   use Samba VFS */
	SMB_VFS_LAYER_SPLITTER,		/* - Splits operation, calls underlying layer _and_ own facility, */
					/*   then combines result */
	SMB_VFS_LAYER_SCANNER		/* - Checks data and possibly initiates additional */
					/*   file activity like logging to files _inside_ samba VFS */
} vfs_op_layer;

The Interaction between the Samba VFS subsystem and the modules

Initialization and registration

As each Samba module a VFS module should have a

NTSTATUS vfs_example_init(void);

function if it's statically linked to samba or

NTSTATUS init_module(void);

function if it's a shared module.

This should be the only non static function inside the module. Global variables should also be static!

The module should register its functions via the

NTSTATUS smb_register_vfs(int version, const char *name, vfs_op_tuple *vfs_op_tuples);

function.

version

should be filled with SMB_VFS_INTERFACE_VERSION

name

this is the name witch can be listed in the vfs objects parameter to use this module.

vfs_op_tuples

this is an array of vfs_op_tuple's. (vfs_op_tuples is descripted in details below.)

For each operation the module wants to provide it has a entry in the vfs_op_tuple array.

typedef struct _vfs_op_tuple {
	void* op;
	vfs_op_type type;
	vfs_op_layer layer;
} vfs_op_tuple;
op

the function pointer to the specified function.

type

the vfs_op_type of the function to specified witch operation the function provides.

layer

the vfs_op_layer in which the function operates.

A simple example:

static vfs_op_tuple example_op_tuples[] = {
	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_connect),	SMB_VFS_OP_CONNECT,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT},
	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_disconnect),	SMB_VFS_OP_DISCONNECT,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT},

	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_rename),	SMB_VFS_OP_RENAME,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_OPAQUE},

	/* This indicates the end of the array */
	{SMB_VFS_OP(NULL),				SMB_VFS_OP_NOOP,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_NOOP}
};

NTSTATUS init_module(void)
{
	return smb_register_vfs(SMB_VFS_INTERFACE_VERSION, "example", example_op_tuples);
}

How the Modules handle per connection data

Each VFS function has as first parameter a pointer to the modules vfs_handle_struct.

typedef struct vfs_handle_struct {
	struct vfs_handle_struct  *next, *prev;
	const char *param;
	struct vfs_ops vfs_next;
	struct connection_struct *conn;
	void *data;
	void (*free_data)(void **data);
} vfs_handle_struct;
param

this is the module parameter specified in the vfs objects parameter.

e.g. for 'vfs objects = example:test' param would be "test".

vfs_next

This vfs_ops struct contains the information for calling the next module operations. Use the SMB_VFS_NEXT_* macros to call a next module operations and don't access handle->vfs_next.ops.* directly!

conn

This is a pointer back to the connection_struct to witch the handle belongs.

data

This is a pointer for holding module private data. You can alloc data with connection life time on the handle->conn->mem_ctx TALLOC_CTX. But you can also manage the memory allocation yourself.

free_data

This is a function pointer to a function that free's the module private data. If you talloc your private data on the TALLOC_CTX handle->conn->mem_ctx, you can set this function pointer to NULL.

Some useful MACROS for handle private data.

#define SMB_VFS_HANDLE_GET_DATA(handle, datap, type, ret) { \
	if (!(handle)||((datap=(type *)(handle)->data)==NULL)) { \
		DEBUG(0,("%s() failed to get vfs_handle->data!\n",FUNCTION_MACRO)); \
		ret; \
	} \
}

#define SMB_VFS_HANDLE_SET_DATA(handle, datap, free_fn, type, ret) { \
	if (!(handle)) { \
		DEBUG(0,("%s() failed to set handle->data!\n",FUNCTION_MACRO)); \
		ret; \
	} else { \
		if ((handle)->free_data) { \
			(handle)->free_data(&(handle)->data); \
		} \
		(handle)->data = (void *)datap; \
		(handle)->free_data = free_fn; \
	} \
}

#define SMB_VFS_HANDLE_FREE_DATA(handle) { \
	if ((handle) && (handle)->free_data) { \
		(handle)->free_data(&(handle)->data); \
	} \
}

How SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT functions can call the SMB_VFS_LAYER_OPAQUE functions.

The easiest way to do this is to use the SMB_VFS_OPAQUE_* macros.

...
/* File operations */
#define SMB_VFS_OPAQUE_OPEN(conn, fname, flags, mode) \
	((conn)->vfs_opaque.ops.open(\
	(conn)->vfs_opaque.handles.open,\
	 (conn), (fname), (flags), (mode)))
#define SMB_VFS_OPAQUE_CLOSE(fsp, fd) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.ops.close(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.handles.close,\
	 (fsp), (fd)))
#define SMB_VFS_OPAQUE_READ(fsp, fd, data, n) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.ops.read(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.handles.read,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (data), (n)))
#define SMB_VFS_OPAQUE_WRITE(fsp, fd, data, n) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.ops.write(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.handles.write,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (data), (n)))
#define SMB_VFS_OPAQUE_LSEEK(fsp, fd, offset, whence) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.ops.lseek(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.handles.lseek,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (offset), (whence)))
#define SMB_VFS_OPAQUE_SENDFILE(tofd, fsp, fromfd, header, offset, count) \
	((fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.ops.sendfile(\
	(fsp)->conn->vfs_opaque.handles.sendfile,\
	 (tofd), (fsp), (fromfd), (header), (offset), (count)))
...

How SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT functions can call the next modules functions.

The easiest way to do this is to use the SMB_VFS_NEXT_* macros.

...
/* File operations */
#define SMB_VFS_NEXT_OPEN(handle, conn, fname, flags, mode) \
	((handle)->vfs_next.ops.open(\
	(handle)->vfs_next.handles.open,\
	 (conn), (fname), (flags), (mode)))
#define SMB_VFS_NEXT_CLOSE(handle, fsp, fd) \
	((handle)->vfs_next.ops.close(\
	(handle)->vfs_next.handles.close,\
	 (fsp), (fd)))
#define SMB_VFS_NEXT_READ(handle, fsp, fd, data, n) \
	((handle)->vfs_next.ops.read(\
	(handle)->vfs_next.handles.read,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (data), (n)))
#define SMB_VFS_NEXT_WRITE(handle, fsp, fd, data, n) \
	((handle)->vfs_next.ops.write(\
	(handle)->vfs_next.handles.write,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (data), (n)))
#define SMB_VFS_NEXT_LSEEK(handle, fsp, fd, offset, whence) \
	((handle)->vfs_next.ops.lseek(\
	(handle)->vfs_next.handles.lseek,\
	 (fsp), (fd), (offset), (whence)))
#define SMB_VFS_NEXT_SENDFILE(handle, tofd, fsp, fromfd, header, offset, count) \
	((handle)->vfs_next.ops.sendfile(\
	(handle)->vfs_next.handles.sendfile,\
	 (tofd), (fsp), (fromfd), (header), (offset), (count)))
...

Upgrading to the New VFS Interface

Upgrading from 2.2.* and 3.0alpha modules

  1. Add "vfs_handle_struct *handle, " as first parameter to all vfs operation functions. e.g. example_connect(connection_struct *conn, const char *service, const char *user); -> example_connect(vfs_handle_struct *handle, connection_struct *conn, const char *service, const char *user);

  2. Replace "default_vfs_ops." with "smb_vfs_next_". e.g. default_vfs_ops.connect(conn, service, user); -> smb_vfs_next_connect(conn, service, user);

  3. Uppercase all "smb_vfs_next_*" functions. e.g. smb_vfs_next_connect(conn, service, user); -> SMB_VFS_NEXT_CONNECT(conn, service, user);

  4. Add "handle, " as first parameter to all SMB_VFS_NEXT_*() calls. e.g. SMB_VFS_NEXT_CONNECT(conn, service, user); -> SMB_VFS_NEXT_CONNECT(handle, conn, service, user);

  5. (Only for 2.2.* modules) Convert the old struct vfs_ops example_ops to a vfs_op_tuple example_op_tuples[] array. e.g.

    struct vfs_ops example_ops = {
    	/* Disk operations */
    	example_connect,		/* connect */
    	example_disconnect,		/* disconnect */
    	NULL,				/* disk free *
    	/* Directory operations */
    	NULL,				/* opendir */
    	NULL,				/* readdir */
    	NULL,				/* mkdir */
    	NULL,				/* rmdir */
    	NULL,				/* closedir */
    	/* File operations */
    	NULL,				/* open */
    	NULL,				/* close */
    	NULL,				/* read  */
    	NULL,				/* write */
    	NULL,				/* lseek */
    	NULL,				/* sendfile */
    	NULL,				/* rename */
    	NULL,				/* fsync */
    	example_stat,			/* stat  */
    	example_fstat,			/* fstat */
    	example_lstat,			/* lstat */
    	NULL,				/* unlink */
    	NULL,				/* chmod */
    	NULL,				/* fchmod */
    	NULL,				/* chown */
    	NULL,				/* fchown */
    	NULL,				/* chdir */
    	NULL,				/* getwd */
    	NULL,				/* utime */
    	NULL,				/* ftruncate */
    	NULL,				/* lock */
    	NULL,				/* symlink */
    	NULL,				/* readlink */
    	NULL,				/* link */
    	NULL,				/* mknod */
    	NULL,				/* realpath */
    	NULL,				/* fget_nt_acl */
    	NULL,				/* get_nt_acl */
    	NULL,				/* fset_nt_acl */
    	NULL,				/* set_nt_acl */
    
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_get_entry */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_get_tag_type */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_get_permset */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_get_qualifier */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_get_file */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_get_fd */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_clear_perms */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_add_perm */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_to_text */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_init */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_create_entry */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_set_tag_type */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_set_qualifier */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_set_permset */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_valid */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_set_file */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_set_fd */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_get_perm */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_free_text */
    	NULL,				/* sys_acl_free_acl */
    	NULL				/* sys_acl_free_qualifier */
    };
    

    ->

    static vfs_op_tuple example_op_tuples[] = {
    	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_connect),	SMB_VFS_OP_CONNECT,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT},
    	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_disconnect),	SMB_VFS_OP_DISCONNECT,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT},
    
    	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_fstat), 	SMB_VFS_OP_FSTAT,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT},
    	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_stat),		SMB_VFS_OP_STAT,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT},
    	{SMB_VFS_OP(example_lstat), 	SMB_VFS_OP_LSTAT,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_TRANSPARENT},
    
    	{SMB_VFS_OP(NULL),				SMB_VFS_OP_NOOP,	SMB_VFS_LAYER_NOOP}
    };
    

  6. Move the example_op_tuples[] array to the end of the file.

  7. Add the init_module() function at the end of the file. e.g.

    NTSTATUS init_module(void)
    {
    	return smb_register_vfs(SMB_VFS_INTERFACE_VERSION,"example",example_op_tuples);
    }
    

  8. Check if your vfs_init() function does more then just prepare the vfs_ops structs or remember the struct smb_vfs_handle_struct.

    If NOT you can remove the vfs_init() function.
    If YES decide if you want to move the code to the example_connect() operation or to the init_module(). And then remove vfs_init(). e.g. a debug class registration should go into init_module() and the allocation of private data should go to example_connect().

  9. (Only for 3.0alpha* modules) Check if your vfs_done() function contains needed code.

    If NOT you can remove the vfs_done() function.
    If YES decide if you can move the code to the example_disconnect() operation. Otherwise register a SMB_EXIT_EVENT with smb_register_exit_event(); (Described in the modules section) And then remove vfs_done(). e.g. the freeing of private data should go to example_disconnect().

  10. Check if you have any global variables left. Decide if it wouldn't be better to have this data on a connection basis.

    If NOT leave them as they are. (e.g. this could be the variable for the private debug class.)
    If YES pack all this data into a struct. You can use handle->data to point to such a struct on a per connection basis.

    e.g. if you have such a struct:

    struct example_privates {
    	char *some_string;
    	int db_connection;
    };
    

    first way of doing it:

    static int example_connect(vfs_handle_struct *handle,
    	connection_struct *conn, const char *service,
    	const char* user)
    {
    	struct example_privates *data = NULL;
    
    	/* alloc our private data */
    	data = (struct example_privates *)talloc_zero(conn->mem_ctx, sizeof(struct example_privates));
    	if (!data) {
    		DEBUG(0,("talloc_zero() failed\n"));
    		return -1;
    	}
    
    	/* init out private data */
    	data->some_string = talloc_strdup(conn->mem_ctx,"test");
    	if (!data->some_string) {
    		DEBUG(0,("talloc_strdup() failed\n"));
    		return -1;
    	}
    
    	data->db_connection = open_db_conn();
    
    	/* and now store the private data pointer in handle->data
    	 * we don't need to specify a free_function here because
    	 * we use the connection TALLOC context.
    	 * (return -1 if something failed.)
    	 */
    	VFS_HANDLE_SET_DATA(handle, data, NULL, struct example_privates, return -1);
    
    	return SMB_VFS_NEXT_CONNECT(handle,conn,service,user);
    }
    
    static int example_close(vfs_handle_struct *handle, files_struct *fsp, int fd)
    {
    	struct example_privates *data = NULL;
    
    	/* get the pointer to our private data
    	 * return -1 if something failed
    	 */
    	SMB_VFS_HANDLE_GET_DATA(handle, data, struct example_privates, return -1);
    
    	/* do something here...*/
    	DEBUG(0,("some_string: %s\n",data->some_string));
    
    	return SMB_VFS_NEXT_CLOSE(handle, fsp, fd);
    }
    

    second way of doing it:

    static void free_example_privates(void **datap)
    {
    	struct example_privates *data = (struct example_privates *)*datap;
    
    	SAFE_FREE(data->some_string);
    	SAFE_FREE(data);
    
    	*datap = NULL;
    
    	return;
    }
    
    static int example_connect(vfs_handle_struct *handle,
    	connection_struct *conn, const char *service,
    	const char* user)
    {
    	struct example_privates *data = NULL;
    
    	/* alloc our private data */
    	data = (struct example_privates *)malloc(sizeof(struct example_privates));
    	if (!data) {
    		DEBUG(0,("malloc() failed\n"));
    		return -1;
    	}
    
    	/* init out private data */
    	data->some_string = strdup("test");
    	if (!data->some_string) {
    		DEBUG(0,("strdup() failed\n"));
    		return -1;
    	}
    
    	data->db_connection = open_db_conn();
    
    	/* and now store the private data pointer in handle->data
    	 * we need to specify a free_function because we used malloc() and strdup().
    	 * (return -1 if something failed.)
    	 */
    	SMB_VFS_HANDLE_SET_DATA(handle, data, free_example_privates, struct example_privates, return -1);
    
    	return SMB_VFS_NEXT_CONNECT(handle,conn,service,user);
    }
    
    static int example_close(vfs_handle_struct *handle, files_struct *fsp, int fd)
    {
    	struct example_privates *data = NULL;
    
    	/* get the pointer to our private data
    	 * return -1 if something failed
    	 */
    	SMB_VFS_HANDLE_GET_DATA(handle, data, struct example_privates, return -1);
    
    	/* do something here...*/
    	DEBUG(0,("some_string: %s\n",data->some_string));
    
    	return SMB_VFS_NEXT_CLOSE(handle, fsp, fd);
    }
    

  11. To make it easy to build 3rd party modules it would be useful to provide configure.in, (configure), install.sh and Makefile.in with the module. (Take a look at the example in examples/VFS.)

    The configure script accepts --with-samba-source to specify the path to the samba source tree. It also accept --enable-developer which lets the compiler give you more warnings.

    The idea is that you can extend this configure.in and Makefile.in scripts for your module.

  12. Compiling & Testing...

    ./configure --enable-developer ...
    make
    Try to fix all compiler warnings
    make
    Testing, Testing, Testing ...

Some Notes

Implement TRANSPARENT functions

Avoid writing functions like this:

static int example_close(vfs_handle_struct *handle, files_struct *fsp, int fd)
{
	return SMB_VFS_NEXT_CLOSE(handle, fsp, fd);
}

Overload only the functions you really need to!

Implement OPAQUE functions

If you want to just implement a better version of a default samba opaque function (e.g. like a disk_free() function for a special filesystem) it's ok to just overload that specific function.

If you want to implement a database filesystem or something different from a posix filesystem. Make sure that you overload every vfs operation!!!

Functions your FS does not support should be overloaded by something like this: e.g. for a readonly filesystem.

static int example_rename(vfs_handle_struct *handle, connection_struct *conn,
			char *oldname, char *newname)
{
	DEBUG(10,("function rename() not allowed on vfs 'example'\n"));
	errno = ENOSYS;
	return -1;
}